The public area contains things that are openly known and talked about - and which may be seen as strengths or weaknesses. This is the self that we choose to share with others
The hidden area contains things that others observe that we don’t know about. Again, they could be positive or negative behaviours, and will affect the way that others act towards us.
The unknown area contains things that nobody knows about us - including ourselves. This may be because we’ve never exposed those areas of our personality, or because they’re buried deep in the subconscious.
The private area contains aspects of our self that we know about and keep hidden from others.
Buzzfeed recently chatted with director Guillermo del Toro about his upcoming television series The Strain, which will premiere on FX. During their discussion Buzzfeed asked him about the possibility of another Pacific Rim film. “I’m working very, very hard with Zak Penn (“The…
An important prerequisite for intelligence is a good short-term memory which can store and process the information needed for ongoing processes. This “working memory” is a kind of mental notepad – without it, we could not follow a conversation, do mental arithmetic, or play any simple game.
In the animal kingdom, the group of birds including crows and ravens – the corvids – are known for their intelligence because they have just such a working memory. However, their endbrain – which is highly-developed but has a fundamentally different structure from that of mammals – has no cerebral cortex; and that is the part of the brain which in mammals produces the working memory. How do corvids manage to store important information from moment to moment?
To answer that question, three researchers from the Institute for Neurobiology at Tübingen University taught crows to play a version of the children’s game of “pairs.” Using a computer monitor, Lena Veit, Konstantin Hartmann and Professor Andreas Nieder briefly showed the crows a random image. The crows had to remember it for one second before choosing the same image from a selection of four by tapping the remembered picture with their beaks. In order to choose the correct image, they must have stored it in a working memory – which they appeared to do quite easily.
Simultaneous measurements of electric potentials in the crows’ brains showed that nerve cells in one particular area of the endbrain were responsible for this capacity to remember. Although the image had disappeared from the screen, those cells remained active during the short period of remembering – retaining the information about the image until the crow retrieved it in order to make the right choice. If a crow couldn’t remember and selected a wrong image, those particular endbrain cells were barely activated. Prolonged activation of such cells ensured that important information could be stored and later accessed.
Professor Nieder and his team conclude that cognitive abilities are possible in a range of differently-structured brains. “Clearly, a good working memory – an important characteristic of human beings – can also exist without a layered cerebral cortex. The corvids’ fundamentally differently-structured endbrain shows that evolution has found a number of independent solutions,” says Lena Veit.
There are great benefits in the ability to temporarily store information. “An organism with a good working memory is intelligent; it is released from the compulsion to respond immediately to stimuli,” says Professor Nieder. “The big question is now – how do neural networks in the brain have to be composed in order to actively store and process information?”
Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have erased and reactivated memories in rats, profoundly altering the animals’ reaction to past events.
The study, published in the June 1 advanced online issue of the journal Nature, is the first to show the ability to selectively remove a memory and predictably reactivate it by stimulating nerves in the brain at frequencies that are known to weaken and strengthen the connections between nerve cells, called synapses.
“We can form a memory, erase that memory and we can reactivate it, at will, by applying a stimulus that selectively strengthens or weakens synaptic connections,” said Roberto Malinow, MD, PhD, professor of neurosciences and senior author of the study.
Scientists optically stimulated a group of nerves in a rat’s brain that had been genetically modified to make them sensitive to light, and simultaneously delivered an electrical shock to the animal’s foot. The rats soon learned to associate the optical nerve stimulation with pain and displayed fear behaviors when these nerves were stimulated.
Analyses showed chemical changes within the optically stimulated nerve synapses, indicative of synaptic strengthening.
In the next stage of the experiment, the research team demonstrated the ability to weaken this circuitry by stimulating the same nerves with a memory-erasing, low-frequency train of optical pulses. These rats subsequently no longer responded to the original nerve stimulation with fear, suggesting the pain-association memory had been erased.
In what may be the study’s most startlingly discovery, scientists found they could re-activate the lost memory by re-stimulating the same nerves with a memory-forming, high-frequency train of optical pulses. These re-conditioned rats once again responded to the original stimulation with fear, even though they had not had their feet re-shocked.
“We can cause an animal to have fear and then not have fear and then to have fear again by stimulating the nerves at frequencies that strengthen or weaken the synapses,” said Sadegh Nabavi, a postdoctoral researcher in the Malinow lab and the study’s lead author.
In terms of potential clinical applications, Malinow, who holds the Shiley Endowed Chair in Alzheimer’s Disease Research in Honor of Dr. Leon Thal, noted that the beta amyloid peptide that accumulates in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s disease weakens synaptic connections in much the same way that low-frequency stimulation erased memories in the rats. “Since our work shows we can reverse the processes that weaken synapses, we could potentially counteract some of the beta amyloid’s effects in Alzheimer’s patients,” he said.
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